Mangroves are a group of trees and shrubs that live in the coastal intertidal zone. There are about 80 different species of mangrove trees. All of these trees grow in areas with low-oxygen soil, where slow-moving waters allow fine sediments to accumulate. https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/mangroves.html
Mangroves are remarkably tough. Most live on muddy soil, but some also grow on sand, peat, and coral rock. They live in water up to 100 times saltier than most other plants can tolerate. They thrive despite twice-daily flooding by ocean tides; even if this water were fresh, the flooding alone would drown most trees. Growing where land and water meet, mangroves bear the brunt of ocean-borne storms and hurricanes. https://www.amnh.org/explore/videos/biodiversity/mangroves-the-roots-of-the-sea/what-s-a-mangrove-and-how-does-it-work
These amazing trees and shrubs: https://www.amnh.org/explore/videos/biodiversity/mangroves-the-roots-of-the-sea/what-s-a-mangrove-and-how-does-it-work
- cope with salt: Saltwater can kill plants, so mangroves must extract freshwater from the seawater that surrounds them. Many mangrove species survive by filtering out as much as 90 percent of the salt found in seawater as it enters their roots. … A third strategy used by some mangrove species is to concentrate salt in older leaves or bark. When the leaves drop or the bark sheds, the stored salt goes with them.
- hoard fresh water: Like desert plants, mangroves store fresh water in thick succulent leaves. A waxy coating on the leaves of some mangrove species seals in water and minimizes evaporation. ..On some mangroves species, these tiny openings are below the leaf’s surface, away from the drying wind and sun.
- breathe in a variety of ways: Some mangroves grow pencil-like roots that stick up out of the dense, wet ground like snorkels. These breathing tubes, called pneumatophores, allow mangroves to cope with daily flooding by the tides. Pneumatophores take in oxygen from the air unless they’re clogged or submerged for too long.